Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu (3rd century BCE to 1st century CE), the Xianbei state (c. 93 to 234 CE), the Rouran Khaganate (330-555), the Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia.
Mongolia is the country of great history. The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Rouran, the Xianbei, the Gökturks, and others.
Mongolia has been inhabited for over 800,000 years. Important prehistoric sites are the stone memorials (deer stone, men stone, square burial, petro glyph and burial mound) that were included in to those empires.
ANCIENT STATES OF MONGOLIA
475-221 BC Warring state period: expansion of the Xiongnu (Huns)
AD 266-316 Western Jin dynasty
AD 581-618 Chinese Sui dynasty supports western Turks against eastern Turks
AD 744-840 Uighurs, allies of the Tang, displace Turks from Mongolia
AD 840-920 Mongolia controlled by the Yenisey Kirghiz
AD 947-1125 Sinicised Mongol Kidan drive away Kirghiz and establish the Liao dynasty in North China
Among the few surviving record is the 13th-century Secret History of the Mongols. Their character and habits at the time are only slightly known to us, because, like other nomads, they lift little in writing. There is some archaeological evidence of early tribal history, but on the whole Mongolian history cannot be compared to English or European histories.
1162 Birth of Temuujin, the future Chinggis khaan
1189 Proclaimed Chinggis khaan after rallying the Mongol tribes
1206 Proclaimed Great khaan of all Mongolia
1227 Death of Chinggis khaan, after defeating Tangut tribe
1229 Ugudei khaan (3rd son of Chinngis khan) proclaimed second Great khaan
1235 Ugudei khaan built Mongol capital Karakorum
1246 Guyug khaan (Ugudei’s son) proclsimed the third Great khaan
1251 Munkh khaan (grandson of Chinggis khaan) proclaimed fourth Great khaan
1260 Hubilai khaan (Munkh’s brother) proclaimed fifth Great khaan
The Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia was the Government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) after collapsing the Qing dynasty between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924 and it was leaded by the Bogd Khaan and highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. The Mongols and Tibetans believed that the Manchus ruled Mongolia and Tibet not as Chinese provinces, but under separate treaties. When the Manchu throne fell, Mongolia, Tibet and China were automatically separated.
In 1921 Mongolian forces led by the Mongolian People’s Party and part of the 5th Soviet Red Army marched into the town of Niislel Huree (Urga) and declared an independent Mongolian state. The Bogd Khaan was made head state as a limited monarch but real power was in the hand of the party.
The 1990s may be called the decade of change in Mongolia. Mongolia set up legal and constitutional institutions become a democracy in a peaceful process which brought Mongols into contact with the modern world. For most of the 20th century, under the domination of Soviet Russia, Mongolia was virtually closed to Westerners. Mongolian Democracy was the turning point in its time when the country sought economic independence, political and economic reforms and an independent foreign policy. Two years later a new democratic constitution was adopted.